Heritage

1. What is heritage?

The term heritage is often applied to places that have special cultural values; many of these places are described in lists maintained by state and local governments. A heritage place has recognised heritage values, is inherited from previous generations and contributes to the identity of people, communities and nations.

In practical terms, our heritage is all that we value and want to keep for future generations. Heritage is far broader than the material objects that are preserved from the past. It includes the assumptions, ideas and attitudes that shape the way we relate to others and how we interact with the natural and built environments. Heritage practitioners must weigh the importance of these values against the need to support new growth and development in order to make value-based decisions about what should be preserved for future generations.

The aim of heritage conservation is to ensure that the cultural significance of heritage items is maintained [NT1] over time. While changes may be necessary to adapt heritage buildings to new uses, it is important to ensure that these changes do not compromise the heritage significance of the building or place. Heritage does not always mean ‘old’. Post-war architecture, for example, has already become an intrinsic and visible part of our history and legacy for the future.

Federal, state and local governments all have different roles in identifying, managing and protecting heritage places and objects.

All municipalities in NSW are covered by land use planning controls that are prepared and administered by state and local government authorities. The legislation governing such controls includes the Heritage Act 1977 and the Environmental Planning and Assessment Act 1979 (EP&A Act). The EP&A Act includes Heritage Overlay planning controls. Heritage Overlays include places of local heritage significance, as well as Heritage Conservation Areas (HCAs).

2. History and Character

Aboriginal habitation

Goulburn Mulwaree is part of the continuum of Aboriginal habitation of Australia. The earliest occupation site in the vicinity of Goulburn Mulwaree in the Australian Alps has deposits that have been radiocarbon dated to 21,000 years ago. The majority of sites in the region date to 3-5,000 years ago.

Two major language groups were identified within the Goulburn Mulwaree region at the time of European contact; the Gandangara to the north of Goulburn and the Ngunnawal to the south. It is likely that these tribal boundaries incorporated a number of distinct aboriginal communities with their own dialects, who were probably linked by kinship networks, common beliefs, ceremonies and customs.

Aboriginal people from the district maintained contact with surrounding groups and an absence of natural physical barriers in the region meant that travel was relatively easy. Large gatherings of Aboriginal people took place in Goulburn with records of corroborees being held at Rocky Hill, the old railway quarry on the Wollondilly River, Mulwaree Flats near Lansdowne Bridge at the brewery, and where the Goulburn rail station is located now.

Recorded Aboriginal heritage sites within Goulburn Mulwaree generally occur in the vicinity of watercourses, in elevated areas and in areas with suitable geology or mature vegetation.

Aboriginal and European Interaction

The region was first visited by Europeans in 1798 when the exploratory party of John Wilson and John Price reached Towrang. In 1820 Joseph Wild travelled south of the Cookbundoon Range to find a large lake – Lake George. From hills to the north-east of Lake George Wild saw “the fires of the natives who appeared numerous” indicating the presence of Aboriginal people in the area.

Introduced diseases had a disastrous effect on the Aboriginal population. In 1845 Francis Murphy of Bungonia reported that the formerly numerous Aboriginal population had declined to an estimated 20-100 individuals. Sadly, in 1848 the bench of Magistrates estimated that the local Aboriginal population consisted of only 25 people.

European Settlement

Exploration by Hamilton Hume, Charles Throsby, James Meehan and John Oxley in 1817-1820 made early colonists aware of the grazing potential of the nearby Southern Tablelands. During the course of the 1820s an increasing amount of land in the area was settled and market centres were established along the major lines of communication south from Sydney. The key centre for the Southern Tablelands was Goulburn. Governor Lachlan Macquarie ratified the name in honour of Henry Goulburn, secretary of the colonies. Goulburn Plains (now North Goulburn) was marked out in 1828. The old township was built around the confluence of the Wollondilly and Mulwaree Rivers.

Governor Bourke visited the old town in 1832 and owing to the repeated flooding of the area he ordered the survey of an area on higher ground to the south west. The layout of the adjacent township of Goulburn was created in 1832-33 as the administrative centre. The present city centre was surveyed in 1833. Due to a large swamp and lagoon the old and new towns were virtually separated for many years. They were eventually united by Lagoon Street.

In 1841 there were 655 people in the town and by 1845 the population had grown to 1,200. There were five stores and five inns in 1844 and by 1867 there were more than 20 hotels. Bradley’s flourmill and brewery was built between 1836 and 1845 and by 1850 Goulburn had become a municipality. The growth of the municipality was reflected in the establishment of a Masonic lodge, two Oddfellow’s lodges and a Mechanics Institute by 1867. By 1870 four newspapers had been established – the Herald in 1848, the Argus in 1864, the Southern Morning Herald in 1868 and the Evening Post in 1870. In addition to the hotels, Goulburn also became a major ecclesiastical centre for the Southern Tablelands. The Scots church and manse were opened in 1841. Goulburn became the centre of a Church of England bishopric in 1863 and also a Roman Catholic diocese in 1867.

In 1869 the construction of the railway robbed the city of the connection to the Mulwaree Ponds – the water that had helped establish the town’s original location. The railway line to Goulbourn was officially opened by Lord and Lady Belmore in 1869 and six years later in 1875 it was extended south. Other significant infrastructure within the town included the present Post Office in Auburn Street which opened in 1881 and the Court House in 1887. The Gaol, Hospital and Kenmore Mental Hospital also date to the 1880s.

Goulburn maintained a strong transport focus due to its location, infrastructure, rail connection and importance as a regional centre. The construction of the railway and yard facilities in Goulburn generated employment for many years, however the significant growth of road transport in the post war years modified the earlier railway and workshop focus. During the 1950s Goulburn developed large wool stores. Goulburn remained a large provincial centre with the infrastructure of government and churches reflected in the impressive public buildings.

The housing stock in Goulburn ranges from humble workers’ cottages through to the architect designed buildings of the social elite. All eras are represented and often mixed together. The centre of the town contains the majority of the older buildings with the age of buildings reducing as newer areas were developed further from the town centre. There are also older originally outlying buildings mixed amongst the newer development giving the city an interesting character.

Outlying towns of Marulan and Bungonia were developed concurrently or a little earlier than Goulburn and contain their own character and history and contribute to the historical development and understanding of the region. Tallong, Towrang, Tarago, Lake Bathurst all contain history and Heritage Items. The rural areas contain numerous Heritage Items dating from the convict era.

 

3. Protection and Listings

Levels of listing

The Heritage Council of NSW recognises the following four levels of significance for heritage in NSW:

  • Local heritage items – listed on local environmental plans by local councils
  • State heritage items – listed on State Heritage Register by NSW government
  • National heritage items – listed on National Heritage List by Australian government
  • World heritage items – listed on World Heritage List by United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO)

Levels indicate the context in which a heritage place is important – within the local area, state-wide, Australia-wide or worldwide. A heritage place may have one or more levels of significance. Most heritage in NSW is local heritage, meaning it is important to the heritage of the local area or region. Place-specific by nature, local heritage is no less important because comparable heritage of similar or different qualities exists in another area. Each level of heritage significance has a corresponding statutory listing and responsible authority for conserving these items.

The local or state level of an item is determined by using the NSW Heritage Council criteria to assess its significance, as set out in the guideline Assessing Heritage Significance. For national and world heritage criteria, see the Australian Government Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts website at: www.environment.gov.au

This assessment can take place as part of a council-wide heritage study or heritage study review, a thematic study of an item type, preparing registers of state agency heritage assets, nominating an item for listing or de-listing, or a heritage assessment, conservation management plan or statement of heritage impact for an individual item or place.

Informed by an assessment using the criteria below, the responsible listing authority determines the level of heritage significance of an item. An item has local heritage significance when it is important in the local area for one or more of the following criteria:

  1. It is important in the course, or pattern, of the local area’s cultural or natural history – known as historic significance
  2. It has strong or special association with the life or works of a person or group of persons, of importance in the cultural or natural history in the local area – known as historic associations
  3. It is important in demonstrating aesthetic characteristics and/or a high degree of creative or technical achievement in the local area -  known as aesthetic or technical significance
  4. It has strong or special association with a particular community or cultural group in the area for social, cultural or spiritual reasons – known as social significance
  5. It has potential to yield information that will contribute to an understanding of the area’s cultural or natural history – known as  research potential or educational significance
  6. It possesses uncommon, rare or endangered aspects of the area’s cultural or natural history –  known as rarity
  7. It is important in demonstrating the principal characteristics of a class of the area’s cultural or natural places or cultural or natural environments – known as  representative significance

Only one of the above criteria needs to be satisfied for an item to have local heritage significance. An item is not excluded from having local significance because other items with similar characteristics have already been identified or listed.

An item does not have local heritage significance when it is not important in the local area  under any of the above criteria.

Is my property heritage listed? The link below is to Council’s Local Environmental Plan – Schedule 5 list of environmental heritage items. The list is set out alphabetically by suburb and street name, it identifies both State and locally listed items. 

Goulburn Mulwaree Local Environmental Plan - Schedule 5 Environmental Heritage

Heritage Conservation Areas

Goulburn Mulwaree Council has a number of Heritage Conservation Areas that are identified in the Goulburn Mulwaree Local Environmental Plan 2009.

A Heritage Conservation Area (HCA) is an area recognised and valued for its special historical and aesthetic character. Important elements that contribute to the heritage significance of a HCA include the architectural style of streetscapes and buildings, fences, trees and gardens.

HCAs protect not just single homes but whole areas from inappropriate development.

 

4. Development, Exemptions & Approvals

The Goulburn Mulwaree Local Environmental Plan 2009 (the LEP) sets out when approval is required for development on a listed heritage item or an item in a Heritage Conservation Area. A link to the section 5.10 of the LEP is below.

Heritage Conservation > Section 5.10 of GMC LEP 2009

  • 5.10s applications

    The need for development consent can be waived by Council when the work proposed on a heritage item is of a minor nature or is maintenance. This exemption can be made under section 5.10(3) of Council’s LEP.

    Below is a link to the form to request a written authorisation to undertake minor works and or maintenance to a heritage item or a place in a heritage conservation area without consent.

    Heritage Work Request Minor Work and Maintenance(PDF, 250KB)

  • Development Applications

    When a 5.10(3) exemption does not apply and proposed works require a Development Application special consideration should be given to the heritage significance of the item. Along with all other minimum requirements for lodgement of a Development Application, the appropriate heritage impacts need to be considered for all works undertaken on a heritage item or item within a Heritage Conservation Area. See below supporting documents to help you determine which supporting document is required.

  • Part 3 – DCP - General Development Controls
  • Heritage impact statement Requirements ­- Appendix H – DCP
  • Heritage Design Manual
  • Development Control Plan(PDF, 35MB)

For further information and advice on specific projects Council provides a free heritage advice service including access to Council’s Heritage Adviser. 

5. Design Guidelines

When undertaking development works, it may be helpful to consider the following guides and documents:

Burra Charter

The underlying philosophy of heritage conservation in Australia is expressed in the Australian International Council on Monuments and Sites (ICOMOS) Burra Charter. The Charter sets a standard of practice for people who provide advice, make decisions about or undertake works relating to places of cultural significance, including owners, managers and custodians.

The Charter defines the basic principles and processes to be followed in the conservation of Australian heritage places.

It identifies three levels for repair of heritage fabric including:

  1. Preservation – maintaining a place in its existing state and preventing further deterioration
  2. Restoration – returning a place to a known earlier state by removing accretions* or by reassembling existing elements without the introduction of new material
  3. Reconstruction – returning a place to a known earlier state. This is distinguished from restoration by the introduction of new material.

*accretions > growth or increase by the gradual accumulation of additional layers

Extracts from the Burra Charter

Do as little as possible and as much as is necessary”.

“New work may be sympathetic if its siting, bulk, form, scale, character, colour, texture and material are similar to the existing fabric, but imitation should be avoided”.

Burra Charter

Design in Context

NSW Government guidelines for infill development in the historic environment are available via the link below.

Design in Context(PDF, 2MB)

Design Guide for Heritage

The aim of the Design Guide for Heritage is to help ensure good design in heritage places. The guide will assist owners, architects, consultants and builders who are working on the buildings, sites and precincts that contribute to our heritage. It will help members of the community to understand the value and opportunity in our existing built environment, and outlines the steps to ensure that our heritage places are conserved, maintained and enhanced through good design.

The Design Guide for heritage was developed by the Government Architect NSW and the Heritage Council of NSW, and draws on earlier publications by the Australian Institute of Architects NSW Chapter and Heritage Council of NSW.

Design guide for heritage

Good Design + Heritage

This publication is intended to raise awareness of good design and promote discussion about its benefits and value. The publication was developed by Heritage Victoria and the Heritage Council of Victoria. It highlights key design principles and outlines effective approaches to achieve good design.

Good Design + Heritage

Good design statement GMC Development Control Plan - Appendix I(PDF, 899KB)

A guide to caring for & restoring your old house - Ian Evans For those renovating or maintaining an old house, heritage building or traditional architecture, look here for information, advice & assistance. See link below.

6. Council & State Government Assistance

Places grants scheme

Goulburn Mulwaree Council has established a Local Heritage Fund to provide heritage grants to owners of heritage items with the aid of part funding from the NSW Office of Environment and Heritage. This grants program runs each financial year and opens for applications each June.

The grants are to encourage owners or tenants to paint exterior facades in colour schemes that are appropriate to the style of the building and/or to provide signage that compliments the heritage character of the precinct.

The program does not cover the purchase of a building, the relocation of a building, new additions or extensions, interior work or unsympathetic work.

A grant will not be offered if work has started or been completed prior to Council offering grant funding.

2019/2020

Guidelines(PDF, 452KB)

Application Form(PDF, 173KB)

Heritage Advisor service

Goulburn Mulwaree Council employs a full-time Landscape & Heritage Planner and a consultant Heritage Advisor. Council is dedicated to addressing its heritage responsibilities in a practical and progressive manner. The broad range of heritage skills available provides for positive interaction on heritage matters between Council’s planning personnel, the Heritage Advisor and the community. Residents, builders and developers are encouraged to discuss proposed work on Heritage Items with the Heritage Advisor.  Council’s Heritage Advisor can advice of suitable conservation methods or offer advice in relation to an application or proposed work. This is a free service provided by Council. The advisor visits Council each month, to make an appointment please ring (02) 48 23 4444 or email Council@goulburn.nsw.gov.au                                      

State Government website & grants for State listed items

The NSW Government is committed to ensuring that heritage is valued, protected, and enjoyed. The Heritage Grants Program is designed to help owners, custodians, managers and communities to know, value and care for their heritage.

https://www.environment.nsw.gov.au/topics/heritage/grants-and-funding      

7. Council Owned Items

Goulburn Mulwaree Council owned Heritage Items

Council supports sustainable cultural tourism and increased investment to maintain and/or invigorate the cultural resources on which local tourism is based. Council is aware of the economic benefits of heritage conservation and actively works towards the restoration and maintenance of its own heritage properties.

Below is a list of all Council owned heritage items, all items are in Goulburn city.

 

Item

Address

Comment

LEP listing
number

1

Goulburn Town Hall

163 Auburn Street

Redevelopment into Performing Arts Centre (PAC) 2019

I051

2

Belmore Park

173 Auburn Street

 

I054

3

Blackshaw’s Wells

Blackshaw Road

Archaeology site

I083

4

Rocky Hill War Memorial

Memorial Drive

New Museum building 2019

I114

5

War Memorial Pool

85 Deccan Street

Aquatic Centre redevelopment 2019

I162

6

Goulburn General Cemetery

100 Sydney Road

Includes Lych Gate. In use for burials

I183

7

Former Brickworks

100 May Street

Managed by Goulburn Wetlands community group (FROGS)

I241

8

Mortis Street Cemetery

1 Mortis Street

Closed to burials

I256

9

Goulburn Water Works

72 Fitzroy Street

Former water supply pumping station. Associated with item I303

I274

10

Saint Clair

318 Sloane Street

Conservation works 2019

I288

11

Kenmore Hospital Cemetery

534 Taralga Road

Closed to burials

I291

12

Brick Water Cisterns

221 Wheeo Road

Associated with water supply. Associated with item I274

I303

13

Lime Kilns/cottages

Marble Hill road

Disused

I307

 

8. Groups and Events

Visitors Info Centre

The Goulburn Visitor Information Centre boasts a range of self-guided tours and historical driving/cycling tours, current heritage events and museums and historical sites open to the public. Visit the website for details.

Visitors Info Centre

History Goulburn (Goulburn and District Historical & Genealogical Society)

The Goulburn & District Historical & Genealogical Society was established in 1951. It is a not for profit comprising of volunteers that encourage the preservation and study of the history of Goulburn and parts of the Goulburn Mulwaree Council area where there is no similar organisation.

The Society promotes and undertakes the compilation of authentic historical records; the development of a library of research on the history of the area and related family histories; the development of a folk museum of important cultural objects of Goulburn and district; and the publication of original research elucidating our history. The Society is an affiliated Society of the Royal Australian Historical Society.

History Goulburn

National Trust

The National Trust of Australia (NSW) is a non-government community organisation, with membership open to everyone. The National Trust owns and operates the property Riversdale located at Twynam Drive, Goulburn.

The objectives of the Trust are:

  • To acquire, protect and preserve, for the benefit of the public, lands, buildings, works, structures and articles of beauty or of natural, historical, scientific, architectural or cultural interest;
  • To protect the natural features of, and conserve wildlife on, any of these lands owned or managed by the Trust;
  • To encourage and promote public appreciation, knowledge and enjoyment of these things.

The National trust has been working for many years to identify and document significant places in NSW with the aim of compiling and maintaining a register of heritage significance. The purpose of the register is to alert the responsibly authorities, property owners and the public so that those concerned may adopt measures to preserve the special qualities which prompted the listing.  https://www.nationaltrust.org.au/nsw/

Goulburn Heritage Group

The Goulburn Heritage Group is a non-constituted body of citizens which promotes the history of Goulburn.

Its membership reflects several community interests - but comes together to support retention of the central city’s architectural heritage, not just its important individual buildings but also the interesting streetscapes that tie them together.

Members aim to be pro-active, raising the expectations of investors so that there is a careful blending of progress with past achievements - thus ensuring that visitors will see a Goulburn still very proud to show off its past.

Meetings: 2nd Thursday each month, 5.15 - 6.30 at the Goulburn Club, 19 Market St, Goulburn

Contact us: goulburn.heritagegroup@gmail.com

Visitors are welcome at meetings .. please let us know by email that you will be attending.

 Bungonia and District Heritage Group

The purpose of the Bungonia and District Historical Society Inc. is to help people connect to the past by researching, collecting, sharing and preserving the history of the Bungonia District. 

9. Available Information

More useful heritage information and website resources:

Goulburn Mulwaree Library – Local History Room

Materials relating to the history of Goulburn and the local area are collected and made available for research within the Local Studies Collection of Goulburn Mulwaree Library. The Library collection is enhanced by the collection belonging to the former Goulburn District Family History Society.

Library staff are available for general reference assistance for family and Local Studies enquiries, and can direct you to the most useful resources for research, however, the Library is unable to provide research services. Email enquiries to: library@goulburn.nsw.gov.au

Goulburn Mulwaree Library

Draft Heritage strategy 2019-2022 – Council

Goulburn Mulwaree is an area rich in both Aboriginal and European heritage. Council is committed to recording and preserving the heritage of the area. In its Community Strategic Plan 2030 one of the six Strategic Goals is A Retained Heritage. The objective is that Council is committed to balancing the community’s need to use and enjoy our natural resources with their protection, enhancement and renewal. Strategy 5.1.1 is to protect local heritage, public places and amenity including the protection of significant architecture, Indigenous heritage and the natural environment.

Council’s Heritage Strategy 2019-2022 is designed to achieve the goal of a Retained Heritage.

Draft Heritage Strategy 2019-22(PDF, 152KB)

Archaeological Management Plan 2010 – Edward Higginbotham & Associates 2010

The purpose of the Archaeological Management Plan is to identify, assess the significance and prepare heritage listings for the items of archaeological significance in the local government area.  The report also makes recommendations on the management and conservation of archaeological sites within the current planning framework.  The Plan was partly funded by the NSW Department of Planning Heritage Branch.

Archaeological Management Plan Volume 1(PDF, 11MB)
Archaeological Management Plan Volume 2(PDF, 1MB)
Archaeological Management Plan Volume 3(PDF, 766KB)

 Aboriginal Heritage Study 2012- Australian Museum Business Services

Australian Museum Business Services (AMBS) was commissioned by Goulburn Mulwaree Council to prepare an Aboriginal Heritage Study for Goulburn Mulwaree Local Government Area.

The heritage study will inform future management of Aboriginal cultural heritage within the existing relevant New South Wales and Commonwealth Statutory frameworks.

The aim of this Study is to identify places of significance, record those places and develop recommendations for their management and conservation that will assist Council to develop strategies to manage Aboriginal sites and places and develop a protocol for ongoing Aboriginal community liaison. This Study will inform Council's updated Local Environmental Plan and Development Control Plan.

Aboriginal Heritage Study(PDF, 11MB)

1983 Heritage Study – Lester Firth

This definitive heritage study of Goulburn city was undertaken by Lester Firth & Associates in 1983. The findings of the study have been included in Goulburn Mulwaree Council's Local Environment Plan and Development Control Plan and have formed the basis of heritage management of Goulburn city since that time.

1983 Heritage Study(PDF, 42MB)

Goulburn Street Master Plan Study - UNSW Cultural Research Unit

This study examines the streets of Goulburn and the ways that they contribute to the environmental heritage of the city. The study considers the evolution of the town form, the street layout ant the structure of the streets. It also considers the history of the street tree that are a significant element in Goulburn. The study has a set of recommendations for the design and management of the streets.

Goulburn Main Street Study – Environmental Design Associates 1992

This document is available in the Library. An electronic version isn’t available.

The study identifies measures to conserve & enhance the identified heritage character and heritage items within the central area of Goulburn City.

Trove

Find and get Australian and online resources: books, images, historic newspapers, maps, music, archives and more.

Trove

State Government Heritage info

Explore the archaeological, built, Aboriginal and environmental heritage of NSW and learn how to protect and conserve it.

State Government Heritage info

Consultants List

Below is a helpful document listing Heritage Consultants and building professionals that work in the Goulburn Mulwaree local government area.

Heritage Consultants and Building Professionals List(PDF, 88KB)